Health, safety & welfare considerations for successful hoof care & sound horses

It pays to take care of your hoof care provider to ensure the best possible outcome for you and your horse!

Hoof care professionals (abbreviated here to HCP’s and include farriers, equine podiatrists and trimmers) face a relatively high risk of trauma injury and chronic injury as well as mental and emotional burn out and compassionate fatigue. This is due to the tremendous physical risk of working with horses hooves as well as risk of mental and emotional strain as a (typically) self employed farrier, trimmer or equine podiatrist.


Most HCP’s suffer acute and chronic pain and trauma injury which might be completely avoidable if working conditions were more suitable. This article outlines the ways in which hoof care professionals might experience health conditions and how these might be lessened or avoided altogether. It is aimed at both hoof care professionals and horse owners for greater awareness and so they might work together in a more healthy, safe and efficacious manner for the mutual benefit of the professional, the owner and of course the horse.


Author Beccy Smith trimming a physically compromised horse under vet supervision; and in an appropriately prepared environment


Types of trauma experienced by the hoof care professional

Accident trauma injury

According to Forge magazine; “In a recent survey conducted by the British Farriers and Blacksmiths Association (BFBA) has highlighted the risks farriers are exposed to during hoof care appointments.


349 farriers and farriery apprentices took part in the survey; 76% reported a minimum of one injury requiring hospital treatment and 32% reported visiting a hospital three or more times.


In the study, fractures accounted for 42% of the injuries sustained with 56% of the injuries resulting from a kick from a hindlimb. 38% of the respondents reported a lasting physical impairment and 22% required more than four weeks off work.


When asked to consider the most serious injury sustained, 31% of farriers felt that it could have been unavoidable.

Being pre-warned of known behaviours (22%), improved handling (46%), a better environment (30%) and sedation (41%) were among the recommendations suggested for potentially avoiding accidents. 60% cited mis-behaviour as the cause of the injury sustained.”(1)


On the whole, many if not most trauma might be avoided if greater care is taken to provide a safe working environment.


Chronic injury/wear and tear

They type of work done (trimming and/or shoeing horses) by HCP’s clearly increases the risk of tissue breakdown and long-term chronic health issues. Some of this can be mitigated by the HCP taking better care of their body and fitness however unnecessary wear and tear due to ill prepared horses can be avoided.


Horses don’t necessarily choose to stand on 3 legs without some sort of training and positive reward or behaviour shaping. Without appropriate preparation, horses can be reluctant to pick up their hooves and hold them off the ground themselves for long enough for the assessment, map, trim or shoeing job to be completed to the best of the HCP’s ability, and to ensure the horse receives what it needs.


Having to haul the hooves off the ground, keep them off the ground long enough to do a quality job and avoid being stamped on or pulled about by a reluctant equine partner is not only exhausting, it can increase the risk of injury and trauma and create unwanted stress experienced by all parties. Simply increasing the appointment time creates unnecessary pressure on the HCP to meet the needs of his or her clients on the day. Many horse owners don’t realise the impact reluctant equine partners have on the short term and long terms well-being of the HCP.


Lame or posturally challenged horses can be more difficult to trim due to pain or balance issues exacerbated during trimming/shoeing. Properly executed positive reinforcement training can go a long way towards helping your horse and HCP during appointments, however some horses need additional support (eg vet support or therapy) in order for the best possible hoof care to be provided and executed. Doing the best possible job can assist with lameness and postural health and help with future hoof care appointments too!

It is not the HCP’s job to train and prepare a horse for effective hoof care appointments, although some HCP’s will gladly provide advice or recommend professionals who can assist the handler or owner in ensuring the best possible outcome for the horse, the owners and the HCP. Some HCP’s even offer horse training services which are separate to their trimming and shoeing services.


No HCP wants to do a job less than their best and no client wants anything less than the best for their horse so teamwork between owner, HCP and vet or other professionals is critical to ensuring a successful outcome during hoof care appointments.


Burn-out and compassionate fatigue

According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), “Burn-out is a syndrome conceptualized as resulting from chronic workplace stress that has not been successfully managed. It is characterized by three dimensions:


1. feelings of energy depletion or exhaustion;

2. increased mental distance from one’s job, or feelings of negativism or cynicism related to one's job; and

3. reduced professional efficacy.”(2)


According to a published review on compassion fatigue (CF), it is defined as “stress resulting from exposure to a traumatized individual. CF has been described as the convergence of secondary traumatic stress (STS) and cumulative burnout (BO), a state of physical and mental exhaustion caused by a depleted ability to cope with one’s everyday environment. Professionals regularly exposed to the traumatic experiences of the people they service, are particularly susceptible to developing CF”. (3)


A caring HCP can easily become emotionally involved with a case involving a lame horse and this might lead to trauma, observed second-hand; which can lead to compassion fatigue. A HCP with compassion fatigue might not be able to provide their best service and it can even lead to more serious mental health conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety or depression. I believe it can lead to a greater risk of burn-out and physical injury as it impacts on all aspects of a person’s state of being (mental, physical and emotional).


According to one article in American Farriers Journal online, in a poll asking HCP’s if they have experienced compassion fatigue, an incredible 89% of responders replied they had!

They go on to say “Providing care for someone else’s animal can be gratifying, heartbreaking and downright exhausting. Without an awareness of how the emotional highs and lows of the job can affect your long-term well-being, there is always a risk for life getting out of balance.” (4)


Physical burn-out and compassion fatigue are real risks to HCP’s and we all have a duty of care to be self-aware and take responsibility of our own health and safety and in order to contribute to the health and safety of others, and serve the horses we all love; to the best of our ability.


Health and Safety considerations for successful hoof care

In order for the very best hoof care outcome and to ensure a long term successful relationship between you and your HCP, we have provided some guidelines for consideration by the HCP and the owner/handler including:

1) Proper preparation ahead of the appointment:

a) Honest communication between HCP and client ensures all parties are aware of what is needed for the appointment ahead of time such as directions, contact details, horse history and background and what you hope to achieve and even of there is provisions for a comfort break - a bucket in a stable corner do not count! – this reduces stress on the day and ensures the best outcome.

b) Ensure the horse is willing and able to stand on 3 limbs - see point 2 (a).

c) Ensure there is a suitable environment/space for the appointment

d) Ensure you have sufficient time on the day to prepare the horse and the environment and for the appointment…


2) Proper preparation of the horse:

a) Horses should be able to stand quietly and comfortably for a minimum of 2 minutes on 3 limbs and this requires training. This is 100% the owners/carers responsibility. Horses which find this difficult may require veterinary investigation and/or additional support as part of their preparation of their hoof care appointment or the owner may need professional training support.

b) Ensure the horse is dry and clean, especially the hooves and limbs – it is not the responsibility of the PHC to clean horses/hooves and this may incur additional costs or a refusal to provide professional service – mud, urine, faeces, and other inert matter on your horse poses trauma hazards, prevents proper evaluation, interferes with the trim and shoeing application and poses a zoonotic or communicable disease hazard. It also clogs tools and increases costs. Lastly, no-one wants to get covered in dirt or faeces for their own comfort and well-being or turn up at the next client dirty.

c) Ensure the horse is as comfortable as possible – cold, hungry, thirsty, stressed and overly tired horses are less likely to cooperate for hoof care. Consider the yard routine and if needed, avoid booking appointments during busy periods, feeding times or turnout times for example.


3) Proper preparation of the working environment - ideally, a dedicated hoof care space should be preserved for appointments but at the very least, ensure there is:

a) A dry and sheltered place away from inclement weather (including the sun).

b) A level, firm and slip resistant flooring for assessment, trim/shoe and accurate documentation.

c) An area free from trip and other hazards on the ground, on the wall or nearby, which might scare the horse or become a nuisance.

d) An area free from small children and other animals including dogs – these can become a distraction or hazard to the horse, HCP or handler and should never be within reach of the working area.

e) Sufficient working space to work around the horse and to allow for quick and safe get-away (HCP or handler) should the horse spook or move, kick out or slip. Consider human traffic too and other horses moving around the work space

f) Peace and quiet to assist with communication between handler and HCP and also the horse and to help concentration levels of all concerned.

g) Adequate circulation and air quality for comfort and well-being of all parties - dusty bedding and hay in the vicinity for example can cause serious disease in humans and horses. Dust and bedding can also pose a serious fire hazard when forging or hot shoeing horses.

h) Adequate lighting for assessment, trim and shoeing for all year round professional visits.


4) Good communication and understanding of the role of the HCP

a) Respect appointment times and allow for adequate time to do the job properly – most HCP’s are organised and offer appointments in advance and try to arrive on time but this isn’t always possible due to the nature of the job – confirm your appointment ahead of time and allow for some flexibility and consideration for the nature of the HCP’s work on the day.

b) Respect working hours – with the rise of social media there are many ways in which we can communicate and this can work well. However, there is also added pressure on HCP’s to respond quickly to messages and this isn’t always possible, practical or reasonable. Consider also what you need from your HCP – some are willing to provide on-going support between professional visits but this doesn’t necessarily translate to being on-call 24/7 for any concern or question. Discuss with your HCP what to expect from one another and set communication guidelines and response times which are reasonable for your situation and horse.

c) Pay bills on time – this reduces admin time and can alleviate financial concerns your HCP might have. Most HCP’s are self-employed and work alone and unnecessary admin time and money worries can create stress and contribute to burn-out.

d) Be proactive in giving feedback to your HCP and communicate your appreciation or your concerns – it can all help us be and do better and helps foster a healthy working relationship which can be mutually beneficial for years to come.

e) Inform your HCP ahead of the appointment if the yard is under quarantine or you suspect there is a communicable disease at the yard - no-one wants to be responsible for the spread of disease.


Health and safety considerations of professional hoof care, encompassing all aspects of the human being (mental, emotional and physical) should be carefully considered. I firmly believe this helps ensure that not only can HCP’s do their job to the best of the ability, but owners receive the best possible outcome and of course, so will the horses we all love – they deserve to experience comfort, soundness, resilience and longevity, and for the optimum length of time to come.


It pays to take care of your favourite farrier, equine podiatrist or trimmer and your horse will thank you for it!


Author documenting hooves post-trim on a properly prepared pony and in a safe, working environment


Sources:

(1)https://www.forgepr.co.uk/news/1056/Farrier+injury+survey+highlights+risks+during+hoofcare+appointments.htm

(2) https://www.americanfarriers.com/articles/12216-tips-for-identifying-and-managing-compassion-fatigue?v=preview

(3) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4924075/

(4) https://www.americanfarriers.com/articles/12216-tips-for-identifying-and-managing-compassion-fatigue?v=preview


We take an integrative and holistic approach to whole horse hoof and body health. We appreciate the relationship between body, limb and hoof and seek to address imbalances while positively influencing appropriate static and dynamic hoof balance and biomechanics.


If, like our clients, you want to learn a PRO-Active approach to hoof care and wish to prevent lameness in your horse, consider booking us for an Integrative Podiatry Consult, Educational Event, Mentorship, On-line Course or join our new VIP membership where you can learn top tips straight from an expert!

 

Beccy Smith BSc ADAEP EBW

Diploma in Advanced Applied Equine Podiatry and Independent Equine Podiatrist, Consultant and Therapist

CEO and Founder of 100% Non-Profit Community Interest Company Holistic Reflections CIC

Holistic Reflections CIC – a 100% non-profit organisation promoting wellbeing and resilience in people, horses and the environment - for the benefit of all.

www.holisticequine.co.uk | www.holisticreflections.co.uk